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By Peter L Duren; Richard Askey; Uta C Merzbach; Harold M Edwards

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If so, the supernova must be Type II. Further evidence in favor of this is that the light of the supernova shows strong traces of hydrogen. Giant stars, even those that have aged at the center to the point of supernovahood, still have vast quantities of hydrogen in their outer layers, while white dwarfs have no hydrogen to speak of, but are rich in heavier atoms such as those of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The supernova is T^pe II, then, and the neutrino emissions are again in line with Hong-Yee Chiu's suggestions.

The last supernova visible in our own Galaxy blazed out in 1604, and was studied by Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), This was five years before the telescope was used for the first time to observe the sky. Since then, the nearest supernova to ourselves appeared in 1885 and it was in the Andromeda galaxy. It was so distant that it wasn't even visible to the naked eye. ) I ended the essay thus: "While no sane person would wish a supernova to erupt too near the Earth, we would be safe enough if one erupted, say, two thousand light-years away.

In less than an hour, the deed was done and a portion of the outer layers of each object was smashed and sliced off, and shattered, and in part vaporized, and launched into space. What was left of both worlds then coalesced to form the Earth as it now is. Observe the consequences. The two metal iron cores remained put and when the two planets coalesced, they formed one core, so that Earth's present core is a combination of both original cores. The smashed layers that were hurled into space might, to some extent, have eventually pattered back to Earth, or, in part, escaped permanently.

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