Download A geologic time scale 2004 by Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith PDF

By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith

Half I. creation: 1. advent F. M. Gradstein; 2. Chronostratigraphy - linking time and rock F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; half II. suggestions and techniques: three. Biostratigraphy F. M. Gradstein, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; four. Earth's orbital parameters and cycle stratigraphy L. A. Hinnov; five. The geomagnetic polarity time scale J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; 6. Radiogenic isotope geochronology M. Villeneuve; 7. strong isotopes J. M. McArthur and R. J. Howarth; eight. Geomathematics F. P. Agterberg; half III. Geologic classes: nine. The Precambrian: the Archaen and Proterozoic eons L. J. Robb, A. H. Knoll, ok. A. Plumb, G. A. Shields, H. Strauss and J. Veizer; 10. towards a 'natural' Precambrian time scale W. Bleeker; eleven. The Cambrian interval J. H. Shergold and R. A. Cooper; 12. The Ordovician interval R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; thirteen. The Silurian interval M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; 14. The Devonian interval M. R. condo and F. M. Gradstein; 15. The Carboniferous interval V. Davydov, B. R. Wardlaw and F. M. Gradstein; sixteen. The Permian interval B. R. Wardlaw, V. Davydov and F. M. Gradstein; 17. The Triassic interval J. G. Ogg; 18. The Jurassic interval J. G. Ogg; 19. The Cretaceous interval J. G. Ogg, F. P. Agterberg and F. M. Gradstein; 20. The Paleogene interval H. P. Luterbacher, J. R. Ali, H. Brinkhuis, F. M. Gradstein, J. J. Hooker, S. Monechi, J. G. Ogg, J. Powell, U. Rohl, A. Sanfilippo, and B. Schmitz; 21. The Neogene interval L. Lourens, F. Hilgen, N. J. Shackleton, J. Laskar and D. Wilson; 22. The Pleistocene and Holocene epochs P. Gibbard and T. van Kolfschoten; half IV. precis: 23. development and precis of the geologic time scale F. M.. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; Appendices; Bibliography; Stratigraphic index; basic index

Show description

Read or Download A geologic time scale 2004 PDF

Best geology books

Quakes, Eruptions, and Other Geologic Cataclysms: Revealing the Earth's Hazards (Living Earth Series)

All through background, extraordinary floods, devastating earthquakes, disastrous volcanoes and different catastrophic actions have established nature's inexplicable energy. This identify offers assurance of the tactics that produce ordinary catastrophes. An introductory bankruptcy information the dynamic forces at paintings underneath the Earth's crust, whereas the following 9 chapters - each one devoted to a unmarried form of catastrophe - clarify explanations and myriad results of those disturbances, more suitable with quite a few examples.

The Boundary Element Method for Groundwater Flow

During this e-book the appliance of the boundary point strategy to the answer of the Laplace equation is tested. This equation is of basic value in engineering and technological know-how because it describes kinds of phenomena, inclu- ding the groundwater stream purposes highlighted during this booklet. specified topics resembling numerical integration, subdi- visionof the area into areas and different computational points are mentioned intimately within the first chapters.

Extra resources for A geologic time scale 2004

Example text

1995a), and Tucker and McKerrow (1995). The International Stratigraphic Chart (Remane, 2000) is an important document for stratigraphic nomenclature (including Precambrian), and included a contrast of age estimates for stratigraphic boundaries modified from Odin and Odin (1990), Odin (1994), Berggren et al. (1995a), and individual ICS subcommissions. During the 1990s, a series of developments in integrated stratigraphy and isotopic methodology enabled relative and linear geochronology at unprecedented high resolution.

2 Requirements for establishing a global stratotype section and point (GSSP)a 1. Name and stratigraphic rank of the boundary Including concise statement of GSSP definition 2. ) Precise location and stratigraphic position of GSSP level and specific point Stratigraphic completeness across the GSSP level Adequate thickness and stratigraphic extent of section above and below Accessibility, including logistics, national politics, and property rights Provisions for conservation and protection 3. Primary and secondary markers Principal correlation event (marker) at GSSP level Other primary and secondary markers – biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, chemical stratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, cycle stratigraphy, other event stratigraphy, marine–land correlation potential Potential age dating from volcanic ashes and/or orbital tuning Demonstration of regional and global correlation 4.

Then, a suite of U–Pb zircon ages using the TIMS method for six volcanic ashes closely tied to biostratigraphic zones were used to adjust and calibrate this scaling. The Devonian scale in GTS2004 uses a modified version of their biostratigraphic scaling with a calibration from additional age dates (see Chapter 14). A similar technique is applied to the Carboniferous and Permian in GTS2004. Cooper and Sadler added a new tool to the arsenal of time scale methodology, as applied to the Early Paleozoic time scale (see Chapters 12 and 13).

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.16 of 5 – based on 35 votes