By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith
Half I. creation: 1. advent F. M. Gradstein; 2. Chronostratigraphy - linking time and rock F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; half II. suggestions and techniques: three. Biostratigraphy F. M. Gradstein, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; four. Earth's orbital parameters and cycle stratigraphy L. A. Hinnov; five. The geomagnetic polarity time scale J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; 6. Radiogenic isotope geochronology M. Villeneuve; 7. strong isotopes J. M. McArthur and R. J. Howarth; eight. Geomathematics F. P. Agterberg; half III. Geologic classes: nine. The Precambrian: the Archaen and Proterozoic eons L. J. Robb, A. H. Knoll, ok. A. Plumb, G. A. Shields, H. Strauss and J. Veizer; 10. towards a 'natural' Precambrian time scale W. Bleeker; eleven. The Cambrian interval J. H. Shergold and R. A. Cooper; 12. The Ordovician interval R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; thirteen. The Silurian interval M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; 14. The Devonian interval M. R. condo and F. M. Gradstein; 15. The Carboniferous interval V. Davydov, B. R. Wardlaw and F. M. Gradstein; sixteen. The Permian interval B. R. Wardlaw, V. Davydov and F. M. Gradstein; 17. The Triassic interval J. G. Ogg; 18. The Jurassic interval J. G. Ogg; 19. The Cretaceous interval J. G. Ogg, F. P. Agterberg and F. M. Gradstein; 20. The Paleogene interval H. P. Luterbacher, J. R. Ali, H. Brinkhuis, F. M. Gradstein, J. J. Hooker, S. Monechi, J. G. Ogg, J. Powell, U. Rohl, A. Sanfilippo, and B. Schmitz; 21. The Neogene interval L. Lourens, F. Hilgen, N. J. Shackleton, J. Laskar and D. Wilson; 22. The Pleistocene and Holocene epochs P. Gibbard and T. van Kolfschoten; half IV. precis: 23. development and precis of the geologic time scale F. M.. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; Appendices; Bibliography; Stratigraphic index; basic index
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Extra resources for A geologic time scale 2004
1995a), and Tucker and McKerrow (1995). The International Stratigraphic Chart (Remane, 2000) is an important document for stratigraphic nomenclature (including Precambrian), and included a contrast of age estimates for stratigraphic boundaries modiﬁed from Odin and Odin (1990), Odin (1994), Berggren et al. (1995a), and individual ICS subcommissions. During the 1990s, a series of developments in integrated stratigraphy and isotopic methodology enabled relative and linear geochronology at unprecedented high resolution.
2 Requirements for establishing a global stratotype section and point (GSSP)a 1. Name and stratigraphic rank of the boundary Including concise statement of GSSP deﬁnition 2. ) Precise location and stratigraphic position of GSSP level and speciﬁc point Stratigraphic completeness across the GSSP level Adequate thickness and stratigraphic extent of section above and below Accessibility, including logistics, national politics, and property rights Provisions for conservation and protection 3. Primary and secondary markers Principal correlation event (marker) at GSSP level Other primary and secondary markers – biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, chemical stratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, cycle stratigraphy, other event stratigraphy, marine–land correlation potential Potential age dating from volcanic ashes and/or orbital tuning Demonstration of regional and global correlation 4.
Then, a suite of U–Pb zircon ages using the TIMS method for six volcanic ashes closely tied to biostratigraphic zones were used to adjust and calibrate this scaling. The Devonian scale in GTS2004 uses a modiﬁed version of their biostratigraphic scaling with a calibration from additional age dates (see Chapter 14). A similar technique is applied to the Carboniferous and Permian in GTS2004. Cooper and Sadler added a new tool to the arsenal of time scale methodology, as applied to the Early Paleozoic time scale (see Chapters 12 and 13).