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By Fred Aftalion

Goals to supply a global standpoint on chemistry, integrating the tale of chemical technology with that of the chemical undefined, and emphasizing vital advancements of the twentieth century.

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84-11359. 71 Page xiv 19. Louis Marie Hilaire Bernigaud, Comte de Chardonnet. Courtesy Bettman Archives. 73 20. The Poirrier factory at Saint-Denis. 90 21. Georges Claude with his liquid air apparatus. Courtesy L'Air Liquide. 92 22. Dmitri Mendeleev. Courtesy Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection. 97 23. Vats for industrial synthesis of indigo, BASF Ludwigshafen factory. 105 24. Petrochemical unit, Standard Oil of New Jersey, Bayway, New Jersey, 1920. 130 25. Doctoral thesis of Otto Röhm, 1901. Courtesy Rohm and Haas.

But in truth, all citizens have been participating in the revolution, as often as not without knowing it. Page xix Those wanting perspective on an industry critical to their daily lives and well-beingmostly for the betterwill find an informative, reliable guide in Fred Aftalion's book. PATRICK P. C. Page xxi Acknowledgments In preparing this book for the press I have been helped by many individuals. A preliminary anonymous translation served as the basis for my work, which then was further developed by Arnold Thackray.

Butter and cheese were prepared from milk; beer was brewed from cereals; wine was obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of the sugars in grape juice; and vinegar in turn by the further fermentation of wine. Salt acquired both a practical and symbolic value. States imposed special taxes on salt and made sure they kept the monopoly of its distribution. The use of salt increased tremendously when sedentary ways of life replaced nomadic ones. Since people were no longer eating raw foods, they had to salt meat and fish to preserve them, and to add salt to cooked food to compensate for the loss of this mineral in the cooking juices.

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