By Denise Phillips
Although a number of the functional and highbrow traditions that make up glossy technology date again centuries, the class of “science” itself is a relative novelty. within the early eighteenth century, the trendy German observe that will later suggest “science,” naturwissenschaft, used to be now not even integrated in dictionaries. by way of 1850, despite the fact that, the time period used to be in use in every single place. Acolytes of Nature follows the emergence of this crucial new class inside German-speaking Europe, tracing its upward push from a trifling eighteenth-century neologism to a defining rallying cry of recent German culture.
Today’s proposal of a unified normal technological know-how has been deemed an invention of the mid-nineteenth century. but what Denise Phillips unearths this is that the assumption of naturwissenschaft acquired a favorite position in German public existence a number of many years previous. Phillips uncovers the evolving outlines of the class of average technology and examines why Germans of assorted social station and highbrow commitments got here to discover this label priceless. An increasing schooling procedure, an more and more brilliant buyer tradition and concrete social lifestyles, the early levels of industrialization, and the emergence of a liberal political circulate all essentially altered the area during which proficient Germans lived, and likewise reshaped the way in which they labeled knowledge.
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Extra info for Acolytes of nature : defining natural science in Germany, 1770-1850
83 Science and nation building were indeed sometimes linked, but the former category was not the projection of the latter. The ways in which the following story is a “national” one are more complicated than that, and they have to do with a shared set of conditions that pertained within German-speaking Central Europe, not a conscious common effort to forge a uniﬁed nation through the 23 INTRODUCTION creation of a uniﬁed science. It was the complex interplay among cosmopolitan, national, and other regional loyalties that gave the German context its particular cast.
Chemistry described the composition of matter and the rules that governed how different fundamental elements combined, while natural philosophy explained the causes at work in the physical world. ”17 Chemistry, natural history, and natural philosophy belonged together as a single whole; the role that Karsten assigned mathematics in this mix was more complicated. In another publication, he noted that the successes of applied mathematics (by which he meant things like Newton’s mechanics) had led some of his predecessors to treat mathematics and natural philosophy as if they were one and the same thing.
Given the evocatively emotive character of the later nineteenthcentury term “natural science,” its strength seems, rather, to have something to do with collective enthusiasm and emotion. To that end, the most interesting thing to look for in the late eighteenth century is perhaps not a handful of thinkers (however famous) who seem to be inching toward a more uniﬁed concept of natural science. The real thing we need to look for are places where Naturforscher were rallying together and claiming to be part of some uniﬁed cause.