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By G.D. Aurbach and Donald B. Mccormick (Eds.)

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1986) in Shetty’s laboratory in India studied the cardiovascular and p-adrenoreceptor responsiveness of lean versus normal-weight subjects of the same social class apparently with similar intakes of energy. The increase in heart rate and fall in blood pressure in response to isoproterenol were greater in the lean subjects, suggesting a generalized increase in adrenergic responsiveness. Other studies have shown that at least some of the obese may be more economical of their physical effort than lean persons (Mayer, 1965b).

Studies Using Single Feedings or Glucose Infusion. In 1981 Welle et al. measured the response during a 4-hour period to ingestion of 100 g of protein or glucose or an equivalent amount of fat (44 g). Protein gave a greater thermogenic response. Since plasma norepinephrine concentration increased significantly only after the carbohydrate feeding, they concluded that the sympathetic nervous system played no role in thermogenesis in this context. Zwillich et al. (1981) also found no reduction by /3-receptor blockade with propranolol in the energy expenditure over 3 hours following ingestion of 250 g of carbohydrate.

G. Clark et al. (197313) reported similar cycling ENERGY BALANCE IN HUMAN BEINGS 23 in the liver of the rat, but Hue and Hers (1973) did not find this, using double isotopic labeling of glucose in fed mice. 4. Interrelationships between Food Intake and Physical Activity, Physical Training, and Thermogenesis In this mechanized age the level of physical activity may account for only 12-15% of total energy expenditure in humans (Brownell and Stunkard, 1980). More important relationships may be the effect of exercise on resting metabolic rate, the effect of exercise on the thermic response to meals, and conversely, the effect of antecedent meals on the energy cost of exercise.

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